GLOSSARY

HISPANIC NORTH AMERICAN & ITALIAN ANCIENT AND MODERN FOOD-BEVERAGE AND MEASURING TERMS
(And a few Germanic South Tirolean terms, just for good measure!)

A

Agnolotti = Italian regional stuffed pasta specialty; shaped like ravioli
Alla marinara = Italian term that implies a dish prepared the mariner’s way; Italian marinara sauces and dishes always include shellfish, seafood, fish, etc.
Anacardi = Cashews
Arborio = North Italian risotto rice usually grown in Piedmont and Lombardy (short plump grain which easily absorbs liquid)
Azaruole = crabapples

B

Baccala’ also known as Bacala’ = Italian cod fish specialty prepared either with salted or dried cod soaked, rinsed and deboned. Throughout Spanish and Portuguese regions it is also calle Bacalao.
Bagna Cauda = Italian specialty from the Piedmont region; mixed vegetables with anchovy olive oil dip
Bavette = Italian pasta specialty; flat spaghetti very similar to linguine
Beca = Trentino’s regional bread pudding prepared with bread, eggs, milk, spices, raisins and apples
Beef Bologna = is made from beef and is flavored with garlic
Faschingskrapfen = South Tirolean jam filled yeast raised doughnut also called Krapfen, Berliner Pfannkuchen, Crafen
Berlinese = Italian regional doughnut; often filled either with vanilla crème or jam
Bianchetti = Italian regional fish specialty; baby fish of the white fish type; cooked and usually served dressed with a dressing that includes garlic, parsley and olive oil
Bienestich = [transl. sting of bee]; yeast dough cake topped with slivered almonds and honey
Bismark Herring = marinated fresh herrings in salt brine
Blutwurst = cooked sausage made from pork blood, pork fat, spices and gelatin
Bockwurst = fresh or cooked sausage easily perishable and made from veal and pork meat with the addition of milk, chives, eggs, chopped parsley; the seasonings are similar to those of the frankfurter (including garlic, coriander, mustard, nutmeg, white pepper); it is available usually either fresh or parboiled
Bologna also called mortadella = originated in the Italian city of Bologna; Italian sausage made of cured beef and pork meat; meat is finely ground with seasoning that are very similar to the seasonings of the frankfurter or wieners; the sausage is available in various diameters; among the seasonings’ of the Italian Bologna are also pistachios
Bombolone = Italian regional doughnut; often prepared filled with vanilla crème (bombolone alla crema)
Bottarga = Italian regional food specialty; pressed and dried grey mullet roe. It is predominantly used in southern and insular Italy
Brauner = large or small espresso with either milk or half and half or whipped cream
Bratwurst = Germanic fresh or cooked or smoked sausage made from either only pork or pork and veal meat
Braunschweiger = liver sausage that has been smoked or cooked and that is made from pork and veal meat
Bruschetta = Italian regional specialty; toasted garlic and olive oil bread
Buseca = Italian regional specialty; stewed tripe as prepared in Lombardy
Bushel = North American measurement used for weighing cereals (approximately 32 dry quarts)

C

Cannelloni = Italian pasta specialty; pasta sheets stuffed and rolled up like small pasta cannons
Capocollo = Italian cold cut; boneless pork shoulder butt seasoned with ground red pepper [peperoncino] or sweet peppers, paprika, salt, sugar; it is cured and air dried
Cappelleti = Italian stuffed pasta specialty; small ring shaped hats served either with sauce or in clear broth
Capesante = Italian term used to indicate the Italian shell fish called scallops (also called Capasanta)
Carnaroli = North Italian risotto rice grown especially in the Veneto and Venetian territory
Caseula = Italian regional specialty; Sausages, spare ribs, ham hock cooked with stewed cabbage; as prepared in Lombardy
Castagnaccio = Italian specialty; chestnut flour cake moistened with olive oil and often sweetened with the addition of raisins
Chili = Hispanic North American specialty; beef stew made from long horn beef; seasoned with chile peppers, cumin, oregano, and garlic; original from Texas
Chili powder = Hispanic North American spice mixture that usually includes ground chili peppers, cumin, oregano; used to flavor chili; original from Texas
Chiles = Hispanic American term used to describe various types of peppers which can be either fiery hot, very hot and spicy, or mild
Chorizo = Spanish style Hispanic American spicy sausage; made usually from pork (the Spanish chorizo usually is dry smoked – the Hispanic American usually is fresh)
Chiacchere = Italian regional dessert specialty of fried dough dusted with confectioner’s sugar. This type of cookies are usually prepared and served during Carnevale (pre Lent season)
Cialda = Italian waffle
Condigion = Italian regional vegetable salad specialty, usually dressed like a salad, predominantly prepared in the region of Liguria
Cotechino = Italian regional specialty; pork meat and pork rind sausage; usually boiled and served with mashed potatoes
Coviglia di caffe’ = Italian coffee specialty; chilled coffee as prepared in the region of Campania
Crazie = Italian currency used in 17th century Tuscany – equaled to 1/12 of a Tuscan “Lira”
Crespella = Italian regional specialty; thin egg flour pancake that is often served filled with either sweet or savory fillings
Croccante = Italian crunchy nougat; Italian type of brittle. It is usually prepared either with almonds or with hazelnuts.
Crostoli = Italian regional dessert specialty of fried dough dusted with confectioner’s sugar. See: chiacchere, galani, frappe, chiacchere.
Crawfish, also called Crawdaddy, Mudbug, or Crayfish = A small type of fresh water lobster which lives usually in swampy and muddy areas of the Southern United States. Boiled or steamed it is a favorite ingredient for Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama dishes such as Crawfish Jambalaya and Gumbo.

D

Datteri di mare = Italian shell fish also called mussel shells

E

Eierliqueur = South Tirolean Austrian egg cream liqueur
Einbrennsuppe = Austrian and Alpine Germanic browned roux flour soup
Einspanner = South Tirolean Austrian term for black coffee topped with a whipped cream
Erbazzone = Italian regional specialty; spinach and ricotta cheese type of quiche; usually served in Emilia Romagna

F

Farinata = Ligurian savory flat cake made from chickpea flour
Farsumagru = Italian regional specialty; stuffed roast roll
Faschingskrapfen = South Tirolean Austrian jam filled doughnuts prepared especially during the Pre Lent season
Fegato alla Milanese = Italian regional specialty; breaded and fried liver
Fegato alla Veneziana = Italian regional specialty; sautéed strips of liver with onions prepared the Venetian way
Fleischkäse = see Leberkäse or Liver Cheese; South Tirolean Austrian Germanic liver meat loaf
Focaccia = Italian regional olive oil bread; Liguria is famous for it
Fortaia = Italian regional omelette; can be filled with sweet or savory ingredients (very much like a crepe)
Frankfurter = Germanic cooked smoked sausages served throughout South Tirol; originated in the city of Frankfurt, Germany; a combination of beef and pork meat cured, smoked, and or cooked; seasonings of this sausage usually include coriander, garlic, ground mustard, nutmeg, salt, sugar, and white pepper; sizes range from big dinner frankfurters to tiny cocktail size; they are available skinless or stuffed in natural casings
Frico = Italian regional pan fried shredded cheese specialty; usually prepared with Monasio cheese in Northern Italian region of Friuli Venezia Giulia

G

Genoa Salami = dry sausage of Italian origin; usually made from pork meat with addition of beef and wine or grape juice; seasoned with garlic; a cord is wrapped lengthwise and around the sausage at regular intervals
Galeda = old fashioned regional (Trento – Trentino region) measuring unit for oil; equal to 10 liters of oil
Gestreckter = Austrian South Tirolean term for espresso brewed with more water than the Italian espresso; also called Verlängerter
Gianchetti = Italian regional specialty; blanched baby anchovies or baby sardines; Usually served in Liguria
Gianduiotti = Italian regional chocolate prepared with a type of chocolate that incorporates also hazelnut paste. The best quality gianduiotti are usually sold wrapped in a gold colored wrapper.
Ginestrata = Italian regional specialty; creamed egg soup
Glühwein = South Tirolean hot sweet spiced mulled wine; includes usually cinnamon
Gnocchi = Italian term for potato dumplings
Grissini = Italian term for thin bread stick; originally from Turin in the Italian region of Piedmont
Griva = Italian specialty; meat loaf wrapped and baked in pork caul; a specialty from the Piedmont region
Guanciale alla griglia = Italian regional meat specialty; grilled pork jowl as prepared in the southern regions of Italy such as Campania or on the island of Sardinia
Gugelhupf = South Tirolean Austrian bund shaped cake shaped like a Turkish turban with a hole in the middle; also called Napfkuchen or Kugelhopf
Gumbo = Regional specialty originally prepared in the Southern United States especially in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. A soupy and more or less spicy dish containing seafood, pork sausage, chicken, often duck, turtle and or alligator meat, and gumbo file (powdered sassafras leaves).

H

Head Cheese = meat specialty of Germanic origin; includes chopped, cured pork head meat in a gelatin base

I

J

Jambalaya = North American Louisiana food specialty classically prepared with rice and seafood, spicy sausage, peppers, and local meats such as possibly turtle and or alligator.

K

Kaiserschmarren = South Tirolean Austrian sweet shredded pancake specialty; shredded raisin pancake dessert
Kartoffelpuffer = South Tirolean Germanic pan fried potato pancakes made from raw shredded potatoes
Knackwurst = Germanic cooked smoked sausage; made like wieners and frankfurters but with the addition of more garlic; it is usually stuffed in natural casings and served hot; is often used to prepare “wurst salat”
Kneecup = Germanic American deep fried yeast dough shaped like a knee protector cup; also called Kreppel, Kreppelchen, Krapferl
Knödel = Germanic term for dumpling
Krapfen = see Faschingskrapfen

L

Leberkäse = see South Tirolean Liver Meat Loaf; usually made from pork liver and shaped like a sandwich size brick
Lira = Italian currency used in 17th century Tuscany – worth 12 “Crazie” or 1/7 of a “Scudo” and

M

Macedonia = Italian specialty; a generic term used throughout the regions of Italy to indicate a mixed fruit salad
Maggi = Germanic soup flavoring; dark brown and liquid. Invented by Julius Maggi (1846 – 1912), it is sold today by international food company Nestle
Maggikraut = Germanic Swiss term for lovage
Maggio = Italian measure of weight used in 17th century Tuscany – equivalent of 24 bushels
Maizena = Germanic brand of corn starch frequently used in Germanic speaking areas of Northern Italy
Mandorlato = Italian regional candy specialty; hard egg white almond nougat. Veneto ‘s mandorlato is among the most famous.
Marillen = Austrian and Tirolean term for apricots; in German called Aprikosen
Marinara or Sugo alla Marinara = Sauce used to top pasta made from seafood is no like the spicy tomato based sauce served throughout North America
Maroni = Austrian and Tirolean term for chestnuts; also called Kastanien
Mascarpone = Italian cream cheese; buttery and almost sweet
Melange = Mocha coffee with hot milk and hot milk foam
Mettwurst = Germanic South Tirolean uncooked, smoked sausage that is smooth and spread able like liver sausage; it is usually seasoned with all spice, ginger, mustard and coriander
Michetta = Italian term for bread roll that looks almost like a Kaiser roll but is somewhat crispier than the American one; more similar to the Austrian “Semmel”
Milano Salami = principally made from lean pork meat and sometimes also beef meat; coarsely chopped and frequently seasoned with grape juice or wine and garlic; it is air dried and often has a chewy texture
Mocetta = Italian specialty; dried ham of alpine chamois
Mohr im Hemd = South Tirolean Austrian dessert (lit. transl. the moore in the shirt); chocolate bread crumbs pudding enrobed in chocolate sauce served topped with whipped cream
Monte Bianco = = Italian regional dessert specialty made with sweetened chestnut puree. It is also flavored with almond or cherry liqueur and topped with whipped cream.
Mortadella = see Italian Bologna
Mossa = Northern Italian regional ancient measuring unit for liquids; was equal to 1,0466 liters of liquid
Mosciame = Italian regional specialty; air dried filet of dolphin or tuna; often prepared in Liguria
Mostarda = Whole fruits preserved in spicy-sweet mustard and grape must (or sugar water) syrup; mostarda can also be prepared with chunks of mixed fruits. Famous is the mostarda of Cremona (Lombardy) which is usually served with boiled meats.

N

Noneso = Inhabitant of the Val di Non, valley in the Northern Italian Trentino region

O

Orzetto or Orzotto = Italian regional barley soup (thick and chunky)
Oss de Mord = Italian regional cookies (lit. transl. bomes of the dead); hard cookies prepared in Lombardy
Osso buco = lit. Translated from Italian: bone with a hole; Italian regional food specialty that usually consists of veal shanks sliced like thick wheels and braised with various vegetables. It is often served either with polenta or as in Lombardy with saffron flavored risotto.
Oximiele, also called oxizacchara or oximele or oxymel (in English) = Ancient Italian term used to describe a sweet sour syrup prepared with honey or sugar and vinegar. Oximiel was used during ancient times and especially during the Renaissance for medicinal purposes. The sweet sour syrup appears in various ancient herbal and medicinal guides. It is also mentioned by Sister Maria Celeste of the Poor Clares (1600-1634), daughter of famous Galileo Galilei, in her letters to the father when she sends him oximele syrup made from sugar, wine made from pomegranates and a little vinegar, to speed up his chest congestion recovery (Sobel; letters 1623-1633 p. 175).

P

Paglia e fieno = Italian specialty (lit. transl. straw and hay); egg and spinach noodles in creamy sauce
Pancarre’ = Italian term for the white sandwich loaf
Pan di Spagna = Italian term for sponge cake
Pandoro = Italian regional cake specialty; commercially produced yeast cake. Shaped like an Austrian gugelhupf, it is usually served during Christmas. Popular is the pandoro made in Verona
Panettone = Italian bready fruit caked shaped like a short torpedo; usually served around Christmas
Panpapato, also called Panpepato = Dark dense fruit chocolate cake – specialty of Ferrara (Emilia Romagna)
Palatschinken = Austrian and South Tirolean pancake dessert filled with either jam or chocolate and nuts or ricotta cheese with raisins; has diverse fillings
Parsut = other term used in Emilia Romagna to describe prosciutto ham
Panseta Rudlada = Spiced Bacon Lard Roll Up – specialty from Emilia Romagna
Panzanella = Italian regional bread salad; usually combined with vegetables and dressed with olive oil; popular in the Po Basin regions
Parmigiano Reggiano = Northern Italian cheese from cow prepared throughout Emilia Romagna and other Po Basin regions and especially throughout the areas surrounding the cities of Parma and Reggio Emilia
Pavese = Italian soup specialty of Northern Italian origin (in fact it was created first in the city of Pavia ); main ingredients are: clear broth, fried or toasted bread slices, grated parmesan cheese and a raw egg
Peara’= Italian Venetian gravy which is usually served with boiled beef; made with bread crumbs, black pepper, beef broth and bone marrow fat
Peperoni = Italian term used to describe peppers (plural)
Peperoni or Pepperoni = American term used to describe a spicy dried smoked sausage, usually red, used often to top American made pizzaz
Peperoncino = Italian term used to describe chiles (chile peppers) which usually are pungent
Peperonata = Italian term used to describe a cooked pepper medley (similar to ratatouille but made with peppers only)
Pesto = Italian Ligurian specialty; minced or chopped fresh basil, garlic, pine nuts, olive oil, and parmesan cheese; it is usually served over trenette pasta
Peverada = another term used to describe the Peara’ (see above)
Piadina = Italian regional specialty; thin parched unleavened bread wheel; especially prepared in Emilia Romagna; it is commonly served stuffed with cheese or prosciutto
Pizzocheri = Italian regional specialty; buckwheat pasta cokked with cabbage, cheese and sage leaves; as prepared in Lombardy
Plenten = Austrian and South Tirolean term for a corn mush specialty; also called polenta in Italian
Polenta = Italian term for a yellow corn mush specialty that is often either served with stew or cheese and butter
Probusti = Italian regional sausage specialty; a type of wiener sausage that is usually sold in pairs
Profiterol = Northern Italian dessert; cream puffs glazed with chocolate

Q

Quartirolo = Italian regional cheese with a slightly bitter aftertaste
Quattrino = Italian pence-like fraction of Tuscan currency used in the 17th century – 1/10 of the value of the Tuscan Lira
R

Ribollita = Italian specialty; vegetable chowder
Rosada = Italian regional specialty; ground almond milk custard

S

Sahne = German term for whipped cream; see Schlagobers or Obers
Salame di Genova = see Genoa Salami
Salame di Milano = see Milano Salami
Salsiccia = fresh and unlinked sausage of Italian origin; heavily spiced; seasonings include garlic
Saltimbocca alla romana = Italian meat specialty prepared according to the Roman way; boneless cutlets with ham and sage
Sanguinaccio = Italian regional food specialty; usually prepared with pork blood stuffed in natural casings and flavored with spices. It is often served with mashed potatoes
Sbiancare = Italian term used for the verb “to blanch”
Scafata = Italian regional legume specialty; usually prepared as a mixture of various types of legumes such as peas and beans; it is popular in the Po Basin regions of Northern Italy
Schiaccata = Italian regional flat bread
Schlagobers = Austrian term for whipped cream
Schnapps = Germanic clear distilled aquavit type of spirit made from fruit such as plums, apricot, pears and or grapes
Scudo = Italian currency used 17th century Tuscany worth 7 Tuscan “Lire” – 1 Lira equaled 12 Tuscan Crazie
Semmel = Austrian roll of white bread; also called Kaiser roll
Smacafam = Italian regional specialty; cake with raisins, nuts and anise seeds
Spaghetti all Marinara = Italian spaghetti specialty with seafood based sauce
Spaghetti Marinara = American Italian spaghetti specialty with a spicy tomato based sauce
Speck = South Tirolean Alto Adige air dried smoked bacon specialty (not to be confused with the German Speck which is raw bacon)
Staio = Old Italian Tuscan measurement used for weighing dry cereals (approximately 1 bushel or 32 quarts)
Stärke = Germanic term for food starch; see Maizena or Mondamin
Stoccafisso, also called Stofiss = Italian term used to describe dried cod fish used to prepare a dish called Baccala’or Bacala’
Stracchino = Italian regional very soft and fresh cheese
Strangolapreti = Italian regional specialty; spoon shaped bread and spinach dumplings; often served topped with butter, sage, and parmesan cheese
Strichetti = Italian regional pasta specialty; usually shaped almost like butterflies but not entirely; they are popular in the region on Liguria
Stroboi = Deep fried North Italian funnel cakes
Sulz or Sulze = see Germanic head cheese; it is often prepared sweet sour with the addition of vinegar pickling liquid; it is often served as a cold salad with sweet sour pickles and sliced onions dressed with light salad dressing
Suppli’ = Italian rice croquets specialty; usually stuffed with mozzarella cheese and breaded

T

Tafelspitz = Austrian Viennese boiled beef specialty; usually boiled brisket or tritip
Tartaruga = Trentino Alto Adige bread roll shaped like a turtle (sometimes made with wheat flour and corn meal)
Tajarin = Italian type of regional pasta; very fine ribbon pasta; usually served in Northern Italy
Tiramisu = Italian trifle made with ladyfinger cookies, espresso coffee, mascarpone cheese, heavy cream, zabaglione cream and European cocoa powder; occasionally this dessert might use Marsala wine or brandy to moisten the ladyfinger
Tongue, cooked = cured, canned or packed pork, lamb, or veal tongue; sometimes tongue is also available smoked; tongues come whole, jellied, or sliced
Törgellen = South Tirolean term for hiking from one winery to the other and drinking new wine and eating chestnuts; Fall eating and drinking activity
Torrone = Italian regional candy specialty; the most known torrone is prepared with egg white, honey and either whole almonds or whole hazelnuts.
Tosto or Toast = Italian version of the Anglosaxon American toast; it is served like a toasted sandwich that is stuffed with cheese and ham. Asking for a toast in a bar means asking for the toasted sandwich stuffed with ham and cheese
Totano = Italian regional term for squid
Trofie = Italian regional pasta specialty, usually prepared with buckwheat or dark spelt flour in the region of Liguria

U

Uova affogate = lit. Translated from Italian: drowned eggs; poached eggs
Uova affogate alla Fiorentina = poached eggs with spinach and white sauce

V

Vardi e fasoi = Italian regional specialty; barley and bean soup; usually prepared in Veneto
Veal Loaf = veal and pork meat cooked and meat loaf shaped; served as cold cut
Vecchierelle = Italian regional specialty; honey fritters as prepared in Calabria
Vialone = North Italian risotto rice grown usually in the Veneto region
Vialone Nano = North Italian risotto rice grown especially around Isola della Scala in the Verona Veneto region
Vinchger = South Tirolean bread specialty; usually shaped like a flat and puffy wheel; prepared with rye flour it is very popular throughout the Italian region of Trentino Alto Adige; the name originates from the Venosta Valley (Vinschgau) where historically the bread comes from
Vitello Tonnato = Italian specialty; boiled and sliced veal meat covered with a tuna, mayonnaise and caper sauce; serve usually cold
Vitel Tone’ = Italian Piedmont specialty; see Vitello Tonnato

W

Weisswurst = fresh sausage that is very perishable; made usually of fresh veal and pork meat; it is mildly spiced; links are usually four inches long and rather plump and slightly curved
Wiener = both wieners and Vienna style sausages take their name from the Austrian capital of Vienna; they are very similar to frankfurter; the sausages come in linked pairs and are twisted into a chain of links
Wurstsalat = South Tirolean Germanic specialty prepared with sliced and julienned knackwurst dressed as salad

Z

Zampone = Italian regional specialty; stuffed pork leg; usually prepared around Modena, in the region of Emilia Romagna
Zelten = Austrian and South Tirolean Christmas fruit cake; made with either buckwheat or rye flour and dried fruits and nuts
Zuccotto = Italian regional cake specialty; sponge cake covered iced chocolate mousse shaped like a bowl turned upside down. Lombardy is famous for its zuccotto prepared with chocolate chips and whipped cream.
Zwetschken = Austrian and South Tirolean term for plums

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